Pakistan Fights to End Senseless Honor Killings: an unsolvable barbarity?

In October, Pakistan repealed a legal loophole which allowed those guilty of honor killings to walk free if they sought the forgiveness of a family member. Whilst some commentators argue that the Pakistani government is still nowhere near giving women the protection they need, and ensuring that murderers receive their just deserts, it is at least a step in the right direction.

Pakistani women have become more vocal in their protests against honour killings, in itself a brave act
Pakistani women have become more vocal in their protests against honor killings, in itself a brave act

This barbaric practice is particularly prevalent – and indeed receives most global attention – in Pakistan, although it remains commonplace throughout the Islamic world. The warped belief that a man can defend his family’s honor by killing a female relative is sadly not a phenomenon deposited in medieval times.

The causes for such retributive killings are many; adultery, refusing an arranged marriage, disobeying the family, religious indiscretion.

Some scholars have attributed religious motives to the practice, perhaps another archaic and selective interpretation of Islamic teaching, a further testament to the unenlightened nature of some of its followers.

Others, however, staunchly oppose such theories, rejecting claims that honor killings are condoned by the Qur’an or have been encouraged by the Islamic rulers of history.

Of course, men (and women) kill spouses, partners and family members worldwide, sometimes for the same reasons stated above. Yet these tend to be crimes of passion, angry, violent outbursts that are not overlooked thanks to some legal technicality.

Honor killings proliferated throughout the Ancient World, from Rome and the Mediterranean, to the Amerindian empires of the Aztecs and Incas. Often it was a punishment to satisfy the Gods as much as serving as a sweet elixir of revenge. Yet it was readily practiced, to the extent that male family members in Rome were subjected to abuse should they fail to smite down their adulterous siblings.

Adultery was punishable by death under the Aztecs, with the resulting execution serving as a sacrifice to the Gods as well as a restoration of honour
Adultery was punishable by death under the Aztecs, with the resulting execution serving as a sacrifice to the Gods as well as a restoration of honor

Outside of Islam, this procedural, planned and rigorous method of execution is now rare, the law affording the perpetrators few gimmes.

Perhaps the root cause is related to the age of Islam compared to Christianity and other global religions? The Christian Enlightenment began in the 17th century and a steady process of secularisation has encroached upon life in the subsequent years, so that church and state are now far removed from one another, with religious doctrine subordinated in society to liberal morality.

Yet honor killings are not restricted to the rural backwaters, where it could be argued that people have no access to the trappings of modern life and the channels of information and communication that accompany it.

Earlier this year, the renowned Pakistani social media star Qandeel Baloch was herself the victim of an honor killing, strangled to death by her brother in Punjab province having lived in Karachi. This is not a geographical issue.

Qandeel Baloch: her social media posts provoked the ire of her family who killed her
Qandeel Baloch: her social media posts provoked the ire of her family who killed her

Indeed, honor killings amongst Muslim families occur in the West as well, with notorious cases in the UK and the USA in recent years for instance. Exposure to more tolerant and compassionate cultures does not eradicate an inherent extremist piety.

So, is this simply another form of Islamic extremism? In a word, yes. The Puritans of 17th century New England are comparable for their adherence to religious stricture, yet even they seldom resorted to such cold-blooded machinations. Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Scarlet Letter exemplifies the Puritan retribution of an adulterous woman; perpetually shaming her, not murdering her.

Hester Prynne and her scarlet 'A'
Hester Prynne and her scarlet ‘A’

Islam is a young religion compared to many others and it has yet to begin the secularising process through which it must pass to reconcile many of its belief systems with the modern world. That Islam is inherently violent is an extremely dubious premise, yet it is certainly patriarchal, some of its core tenets susceptible to abuse.

Whatever the reason, the practice of honor killing is a shameful and senseless one, irreconcilable with the honor and righteousness it claims to uphold. A practice abandoned centuries ago in some cultures claims the lives of thousands each year in others.

To be a Muslim woman today remains an undoubted challenge, in some countries more than others. The root causes of many honor killings are themselves flagrant abuses of women and girls, child marriage being an obvious case in point.

The Pakistani government would do well to remember that its latest triumph is merely a tentative beginning.

Iran Plays Powerful with Control Over Hormuz Strait; 500 Years on from Afonso de Albuquerque

The Strait of Hormuz is one of the most strategically important waterways in the world today.  Providing the only sea passage between the Persian Gulf and the open ocean, it is used to transport approximately 20% of international petroleum requirements from the Middle Eastern oil fields.

The Strait of Hormuz has great strategic and, by extension, military importance
The Strait of Hormuz has great strategic and, by extension, military importance

At its narrowest, the Strait flows between Iran to the north and the Omanian exclave of Musandam to the south.  It has been the scene of diplomatic incidents, military clashes and maritime collisions but to Tehran, in particular, it is a chokepoint of great potential.

The Iranians periodically threaten to close the Strait of Hormuz and have, indeed, made the potential for such a scenario central to their belligerent foreign policy.  It is the United States, unsurprisingly, that is typically the target of such threats and whilst Iran would suffer from halting oil shipments out of the Persian Gulf, its control over the Strait is an undoubted bargaining tool.

It is 500 years since the great Portuguese explorer, conqueror and administrator Afonso de Albuquerque perished in Goa, that strategic gateway to India whose capture secured a foothold for Lisbon in Asia. Eight years prior to his death, Albuquerque had sailed into the Strait of Hormuz on the orders of his patron, King Manuel I of the House of Aviz.

Ever since Vasco da Gama had landed at Calicut in 1498, the Portuguese had been in competition for dominance over the lucrative Indian Ocean trade with Muslim merchants, whose own commercial routes stretched all the way to Egypt and the Mamluk Sultanate, Manuel’s rival in the Mediterranean.  Capturing Ormuz Island on what is today Iran’s southern coast would be a major step in thwarting Muslim ambitions.

Da Gama's famed voyage initiated an era of worldwide European exploration and conquest
Da Gama’s famed voyage initiated an era of worldwide European exploration and conquest

With little effort, Albuquerque and his men captured their target in October 1507, only for their joy to be short-lived.  In a harsh climate without sufficient supplies, Albuquerque’s aim to build a garrison to hold the island led to resentment amongst his subordinate captains and provoked resistance from the local population.  A mutiny of the Portuguese ensued, whereby all bar Albuquerque’s ship returned to Portuguese India and Ormuz was lost.

Not to be deterred – and after securing Goa and Malacca in a series of brilliantly daring raids – Albuquerque returned to Ormuz again in 1515 with more than 1,000 men in 27 heavily-armed vessels.  This time the conquest led to the establishment of a permanent garrison, effectively cutting off the Indian Ocean to the Muslim merchants and securing the first overseas empire by a European power.  Indeed, it would not be until 1622 that the Portuguese presence at Ormuz was ended by the British.

Ormuz offered the Portuguese a grasp on both the Indian and Persian trade
Ormuz offered the Portuguese a grasp on both the Indian and Persian trade

There are few men as ‘great’ as Albuquerque today – and this term refers to his military and administrative achievements not his propensity to dispense brutal justice to those who dared cross him – nor as pioneering as his predecessors da Gama and Francisco da Almeida.  Indeed, we live in a world where such personalities are discouraged and any sense of individualism is often treated with noted scepticism.

Albuquerque was a formidable character...so much so that he earned the sobriquet O Terrível (The Terrible)
Albuquerque was a formidable character…so much so that he earned the sobriquet O Terrível (The Terrible)

The 16th century was characterised by the disproportionate achievements of the few against the many.  Nowadays it often appears as if thousands upon thousands of faceless diplomats and bureaucrats are incapable of creating the slightest change.  The Iran nuclear deal took the involvement of hundreds of such characters and, whilst driven by a select few global ‘leaders’, time is likely to prove how ineffective this venture has been.

Iran’s threats ring hollow; closing the Strait of Hormuz would hurt its enemies but also itself.  Sometimes it is hard not to pine after the dashing era of Albuquerque and his bloody-minded cohorts, who could ride roughshod over the barricades and penetrate the enemy heartland, safe in the knowledge that their technological and martial superiority would grant them passage.

Alas; timid diplomacy, bureaucratic gridlock and unadventurous leaders are all we can hope for in our tormented world of scrutiny, cynicism and obstinacy.

Source

Crowley, R (2015), Conquerors: How Portugal Seized the Indian Ocean and Forged the First Global Empire

Bangladesh On the Brink: Sectarian Conflict and IS Await After More Murders

A leading LGBT activist in Bangladesh has been murdered in the latest in a worrying list of assassinations carried out by Islamist militants in the South Asian nation. Xulhaz Mannan was reportedly hacked to death for his social commentary in support of LGBT rights in a country where homosexuality remains illegal, with more than 90% of the population Muslim.

Xulhaz Mannan was the editor of Bangladesh's only LGBT magazine
Xulhaz Mannan was the editor of Bangladesh’s only LGBT magazine

Atheists, Hindus, Christians, secularists and even Shia Muslims have also been amongst a spate of victims to have fallen prey to brutal attacks during the past couple of years. The government in Dhaka, meanwhile, appears either incapable or unwilling to address this terrifying security situation, where Islamist extremists can seemingly commit murder with impunity.

The Islamic State (IS) – as is its wont these days – has claimed responsibility for this latest killing. Whilst IS involvement is certainly far from definite, the Bangladeshi government’s assertion that the terrorist group has absolutely no presence in the country is both fanciful and arrogant.

Indeed, Bangladesh is facing one of its gravest challenges since its War of Independence from Pakistan in 1971. This conflict became renowned for its indiscriminate violence, which resulted in the deaths and rapes of hundreds of thousands of civilians, displacing several million more.

Unexploded Ordnance surrounds two children during the bloody 1971 conflict
Unexploded Ordnance surrounds two children during the bloody 1971 conflict

One of the main perpetrators of what some have labelled the ‘Bangladesh Genocide’ was Jamaat-e-Islami, a radical Islamic militant group that sided with the forces of West Pakistan in trying to prevent the cession of the Bengali-majority East, the land that would subsequently become Bangladesh.

Jamaat-e-Islami retains a presence in Bangladeshi politics and social life, even if the Supreme Court declared the organisation illegal in 2013. With an aim to create an Islamic state under Sharia law, the group is a prime candidate to come under the IS umbrella and has been linked with several of the recent murders in Bangladesh. Several of its members have been indicted for war crimes committed during the 1971 atrocities, a move that prompted a murderous, rampaging reaction from the group’s supporters.

Capture
A candle light vigil demanding the execution of Jamaat-e-Islami leaders for their role in the atrocities of the 1971 War of Independence

Added to the mix is Jamiatul Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB), a fundamentalist offshoot of Jamaat-e-Islami responsible for a coordinated 2005 bombing campaign, in addition to a slew of murders. Despite the arrest and execution of many of its leaders, rumours abound that the JMB is not finished. A further 15 to 20 Islamist militant groups may currently operate in Bangladesh.

As in Pakistan, there is a suspicion that Islamist views hold sway amongst large sections of the ruling elite, severely undermining the security of religious minorities and ‘non-traditional’ civil society groups. Such a scenario, if true, could lead to violent retaliations by more moderate Muslims and minority groups,adding internal conflict to an already toxic mix of economic malaise and demographic pressure.

Put simply, sectarian bloodshed seems on the cards. With IS willing to delegate its barbarous mandate to local militant groups, Bangladesh stands as a perfect candidate for the next wave of civil war in Asia.

The government has to react before it’s too late. Whether its leaders have the inclination, the political capital, or the moral capacity to rise to the challenge remains to be seen, but nobody should want to be reminded of the realities of 1971.