Western Sahara Dreams of Freedom: from the Halls of the AU to the Cape that Made History

The re-admittance of Morocco into the African Union (AU) has raised hopes that Western Sahara will soon be rewarded with its long-claimed independence.

Freed from Spanish colonial rule in 1975, this barren desert province was soon subsumed by the Moroccans. The authorities in Rabat and El-Aaiún (the largest settlement in Western Sahara) subsequently fought to undermine the legitimacy of the breakaway Saharan Arab Democratic Republic (SADR), established in Algerian exile by the Polisario Front.

Sahrawi soldiers parade in Algeria
Sahrawi soldiers parade in Algeria

The Polisario Front waged guerrilla warfare against the Moroccan Army throughout the 1980s, with thousands of Sahrawi people fleeing to ‘temporary’ camps in Algeria to escape further colonial rule.

Gradually worn down by the superior firepower of its unwanted overlords, the Polisario Front lost any momentum it had gained from the SADR’s admission into the Organisation of African Unity – the AU forerunner – in 1984, the development that caused Morocco’s break with its African colleagues. Whilst many Sahrawis remained in a pitiful exile, others returned to their homeland, their resistance crushed, assimilation beckoning.

Violence has remained sporadic and low key since a UN-brokered ceasefire in 1991 and few outsiders know of this bitter territorial dispute.

Morocco controls everything west of the red boundary line - most Western Saharan territory of note
Morocco controls everything west of the red boundary line – most Western Saharan territory of note

Perhaps equally significant, and even less well-known, is the role West Saharan geography has played in history. In addition to being a staging post for the Saharan trade of the Middle Ages, it boasts a particularly devilish headland that once stood as a formidable barrier to European exploration.

Cape Bojador (in Spanish) or Abu Khatar (‘father of danger’ in Arabic), a bulging headland host to ferocious tidal currents, for several decades halted the navigational exploits of Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal and his willing sailors.

Restricted to tacking along the coastline in their precarious barinels, the Portuguese accomplished an extraordinary feat in mapping in detail the outline of North Africa. However, there was one landmark they could not overcome.

In 1433 Gil Eannes attempted to breach the gates of Cape Bojador. Commissioned by Prince Henry – that semi-legendary member of the royal house of Aviz – Eannes undertook his foolhardy mission in search of a great Christian king believed to live deep within the African interior. This king, Prester John they called him, would ally his forces with Henry to smash the burgeoning power of the North African Moors, who threatened Iberian dominance of the Mediterranean.

Prince Henry
Prince Henry

Eannes failed in his venture, returning to spread further rumours of the perils of Cape Bojador; the tides that constantly changed direction, the ferocious winds that whipped up the dust from the Saharan coast to blind the mariners, and the great sea monsters that nipped with ravenous intent at his ship’s bow.

Prince Henry – ‘a man little less than divine’ according to court chronicler Zurara – was not to be deterred, however. Ensconced in his Vila do Infante at Sagres, surrounded by the world’s greatest cartographers and shipwrights, he planned Portugal’s domination of the high seas.

It was at the Vila do Infante that the idea of the caravel – the single greatest invention in maritime history – was born. The design of her lateen sails allowed her to navigate against the wind, a precious development in Portugal’s assault on the West African coast.

With a precursor to this fine vessel Eannes set sail once more in 1434. With the protection of his Christian God and the unfaltering belief of his most Christian Prince, Eannes rounded Cape Bojador. Untouched by the sea monsters, he cruised through the tidal maelstrom to set Portugal on its path to empire. His only observations of terra firma beyond the Cape were the signs of camel tracks in the sand, yet Eannes had secured his place in history.

In half-a-century Diogo Cao had reached the Congo River; in a few more years Bartolomeu Dias had rounded the Cape of Good Hope; by 1498 Vasco Da Gama had touched down in India and Portugal’s acquisition of a maritime empire began in earnest.

It is an oft-told tale but one in which reference to Western Sahara and Cape Bojador is rare. Perhaps it is deemed insignificant or unimportant in the grand scheme of things? Perhaps Western Sahara is too? After all, despite international recognition, precious little pressure has been put on Morocco to relinquish its hold on this historic land.

The innocuous-looking Cape Bojador - a barrier to medieval exploration
The innocuous-looking Cape Bojador – a barrier to medieval exploration

Despite the cautious optimism surrounding this latest development, several AU countries (including Algeria and South Africa) had wanted Morocco’s readmission to be subject to their acceptance of Western Sahara’s independence. Their wishes went unheeded.

Progress, perhaps, but Morocco’s burgeoning economic ties with the rest of the African continent may better explain its eagerness to join the AU. Why relinquish your colonies when the military and moral pressure is so weak?

Standing at the headland that few outside the academic creed remember, one hopeful of the future but acknowledging of the past might muse:

At this point stands the barrier between two worlds

A guard between the old and the new

The formidable cape that represents the resilience of the West Saharan

Conquered but untamed, subordinated but unassimilated

In pursuit of greater things we must first recognise the wealth of our land

Of the history and spirit embodied by our geography

With Abu Khatar watching over us we can feel secure.

History Against Controlling the Ebola Virus: Time for a Lockdown?

As the number of victims of the Ebola virus nears 5,000 in West Africa, and a second case is confirmed the USA, two opposing camps are forming:

1. Those that believe that whilst isolated cases may appear in any country, there is no reason to believe that we are on course for a global pandemic.

2. Those that fear international authorities are underplaying the inherent risks of disease transmission and believe that it is only a matter of time before the virus spreads globally.

Corpses of Ebola victims are removed by highly-protected medics
Corpses of Ebola victims are removed by highly-protected medics

Although the worst case scenario seems unlikely at this stage, there is historical precedent to suggest that battling the Ebola virus will provide a unique challenge.

Belief, Tradition and Education

The ‘Black Death’ of the 14th century is perhaps the first well-documented instance of an international pandemic. Bubonic plague wiped out as much as one-third of the European population, destroyed communities and devastated national economies.

One of the features of the early spread of the plague was the sheer ignorance among the population about what they were facing. Conditioned by religious law, they deemed the disease an indictment by God of mankind’s fall.

Families often lived in cramped, unhygienic conditions and tended to their ill relatives in a communal setting. Such a lifestyle allowed a rapid transmission of the disease and is not dissimilar to the spread of Ebola through the impoverished shanty towns of West Africa.

The Black Death was exacerbated by filthy living conditions and poor disposal of corpses
The Black Death was exacerbated by filthy living conditions and poor disposal of corpses

Additionally, the importance of a religious burial attended by kinfolk was paramount in most 14th century societies. This enforced close contact between an infected corpse and other ‘healthy’ family members, further enabled the disease to spread. In West Africa, too, the dead bodies of Ebola victims have been claimed by their families and taken home for burial as per their religious/traditional beliefs, often condemning others in the process.

No Immunity/Vaccination

One of the major issues with controlling the Ebola virus is the absence of a clinically-tested, widely available vaccine. This is, of course, crucial when dealing with a disease against which humans have developed no immunity.

Whilst the European immune system had built up a degree of resilience to diseases such as smallpox, the indigenous Americans were helpless. Without an effective cure, they died in their millions, helping pave the way for undisputed European domination of their territories. (For more information, download Sickness on early Hispaniola)

Nahua smallpox sufferers at the time of the Spanish conquest
Nahua smallpox sufferers at the time of the Spanish conquest

The rapidity with which the Ebola virus claims its victims is alarming and comparable with the swift mortality of the indigenous American sufferers on contact with the Europeans.

Globalization and Transmission

We now live, indisputably, in a globalized, highly-interdependent world. Thousands of flights cross international boundaries on a daily basis, creating the opportunity for the wide and rapid transmission of a variety of diseases.

Between 1918 and 1920, at least 50 million people – potentially up to 5% of the global population – died as a result of a vicious strain of the influenza virus dubbed ‘Spanish Flu’. The pandemic reached all corners of the globe at a time when international travel and dissemination had begun to advance at great pace.

Today, we are far more globalized. Without putting a complete lockdown on the population of West Africa – whereby all sea, land and air borders are sealed – it is inevitable that some people will carry the Ebola virus to every continent.

When you add to this the potential of international volunteers helping fight the Ebola outbreak bringing back the disease, the prospects are quite worrying. Even with the most carefully-observed hygiene procedures, the level of contagion inherent in the disease makes infection difficult to avoid.

Time for Lockdown?

Although it would be a dreadful decision to have to make, there is an argument to enforce a lockdown on West Africa to at least isolate the Ebola virus in that region. Indeed, limited curfews in Liberia and Sierra Leone have succeeded in preventing further spread of the disease.

A three day lockdown in Sierra Leone proved effective
A three day lockdown in Sierra Leone proved effective

Through a combination of poor education and traditional beliefs, lack of vaccine and immunity, and globalization, Ebola is an undoubted threat to global health.

How practicable a lockdown is in reality is hard to say, though it must be an avenue which the international community endeavors to explore.

France Eschews Tradition: clampdown on African elite’s ill-gotten Paris gains

Teodorin Nguema Obiang Mangue, the son of Equatorial Guinea’s leaders and one of the country’s vice-presidents, is under formal investigation in France for massive money-laundering. Obiang has used money plundered from his state’s oil-bolstered coffers, it is argued, to invest in Parisian property worth more than $100m, in addition to other luxuries.

Some of Obiang's luxury cars have already been impounded
Some of Obiang’s luxury cars have already been impounded

Such practice is common amongst the kleptocratic political elite of Françafrique. (Whilst Equatorial Guinea was formerly a Spanish colony, it is a member of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) and has strong post-independence ties with Paris). Perhaps the best example from recent history is Omar Bongo, the long-serving President of Gabon.

Omar Bongo was only the second president of an independent Gabon, a former French colony. He ruled from 1967 until his death in 2009, during which time he accrued an enormous personal fortune through the embezzlement of government funds, particularly benefiting from oil revenues and profits from mineral extraction. He built-up an impressive property portfolio in Paris through his ill-gotten gains, owning at least 33 properties throughout France, in addition to a fleet of cars and luxury jets.

Throughout his rule, Bongo was unequivocally supported by the French authorities who found him a complicit accomplice in their goal to retain influence in West Africa, where most of their former colonies on the continent lie. Through showering patronage on a new generation of African leaders, turning a blind eye to their excesses (both at home and in France), and undermining opposition forces to their chosen leaders’ rules, the French managed to avoid accusations over the more distasteful elements of their colonisation, something they failed to achieve in North Africa.

Bongo (second from left) enjoyed the patronage of Jacques Chirac and other French leaders
Bongo (second from left) enjoyed the patronage of Jacques Chirac and other French leaders

Only in 2009, shortly before his death, was Bongo investigated for the questionable acquisition of his French wealth. By that time, after several spells in hospital away from Gabon, he was of little use to French politicians. Since his death, Franco-Gabonese relations have deteriorated.

Why then the change for France now? Both Obiang’s father and the President of Congo-Brazzaville face inquiries into their French estates. Perhaps the French have tired of their chosen dictators’ unpredictability. Maybe they wish to follow the American path of creating a grateful liberal democratic order, whose inclusiveness will provoke a debt of gratitude. Are they seeking to inspire a new generation of ‘honest’ West African politicians who will not be tempted by the promising advances of Chinese wealth?

Either way, Françafrique has not run its course but the stakes have changed. Ordinary Parisians have tired of living side-by-side with criminal African leaders. The presence of the likes of Obiang and Bongo is an embarrassment to a French government desperately trying to retain a sense of moral authority in the EU.

Whether their investigations amount to anything, and whether a new generation of West African leaders emerges, will have a bearing on the future of French neocolonialism.