Bangladesh On the Brink: Sectarian Conflict and IS Await After More Murders

A leading LGBT activist in Bangladesh has been murdered in the latest in a worrying list of assassinations carried out by Islamist militants in the South Asian nation. Xulhaz Mannan was reportedly hacked to death for his social commentary in support of LGBT rights in a country where homosexuality remains illegal, with more than 90% of the population Muslim.

Xulhaz Mannan was the editor of Bangladesh's only LGBT magazine
Xulhaz Mannan was the editor of Bangladesh’s only LGBT magazine

Atheists, Hindus, Christians, secularists and even Shia Muslims have also been amongst a spate of victims to have fallen prey to brutal attacks during the past couple of years. The government in Dhaka, meanwhile, appears either incapable or unwilling to address this terrifying security situation, where Islamist extremists can seemingly commit murder with impunity.

The Islamic State (IS) – as is its wont these days – has claimed responsibility for this latest killing. Whilst IS involvement is certainly far from definite, the Bangladeshi government’s assertion that the terrorist group has absolutely no presence in the country is both fanciful and arrogant.

Indeed, Bangladesh is facing one of its gravest challenges since its War of Independence from Pakistan in 1971. This conflict became renowned for its indiscriminate violence, which resulted in the deaths and rapes of hundreds of thousands of civilians, displacing several million more.

Unexploded Ordnance surrounds two children during the bloody 1971 conflict
Unexploded Ordnance surrounds two children during the bloody 1971 conflict

One of the main perpetrators of what some have labelled the ‘Bangladesh Genocide’ was Jamaat-e-Islami, a radical Islamic militant group that sided with the forces of West Pakistan in trying to prevent the cession of the Bengali-majority East, the land that would subsequently become Bangladesh.

Jamaat-e-Islami retains a presence in Bangladeshi politics and social life, even if the Supreme Court declared the organisation illegal in 2013. With an aim to create an Islamic state under Sharia law, the group is a prime candidate to come under the IS umbrella and has been linked with several of the recent murders in Bangladesh. Several of its members have been indicted for war crimes committed during the 1971 atrocities, a move that prompted a murderous, rampaging reaction from the group’s supporters.

Capture
A candle light vigil demanding the execution of Jamaat-e-Islami leaders for their role in the atrocities of the 1971 War of Independence

Added to the mix is Jamiatul Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB), a fundamentalist offshoot of Jamaat-e-Islami responsible for a coordinated 2005 bombing campaign, in addition to a slew of murders. Despite the arrest and execution of many of its leaders, rumours abound that the JMB is not finished. A further 15 to 20 Islamist militant groups may currently operate in Bangladesh.

As in Pakistan, there is a suspicion that Islamist views hold sway amongst large sections of the ruling elite, severely undermining the security of religious minorities and ‘non-traditional’ civil society groups. Such a scenario, if true, could lead to violent retaliations by more moderate Muslims and minority groups,adding internal conflict to an already toxic mix of economic malaise and demographic pressure.

Put simply, sectarian bloodshed seems on the cards. With IS willing to delegate its barbarous mandate to local militant groups, Bangladesh stands as a perfect candidate for the next wave of civil war in Asia.

The government has to react before it’s too late. Whether its leaders have the inclination, the political capital, or the moral capacity to rise to the challenge remains to be seen, but nobody should want to be reminded of the realities of 1971.

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The Price of Justice: Molla execution threatens Bangladesh stability

The decision by the Bangladesh government to uphold and carry out the death sentence handed down to Islamist leader Abdul Quader Molla for crimes committed during the country’s war of independence threatens to revive old wounds and in the process destabilise security on the streets of Dhaka.

Molla's execution may spark unrest
Molla’s execution may spark unrest

Molla was convicted by Bangladesh’s International Crimes Tribunal (ICT) of inciting acts of atrocities during the 1971 independence struggle and was executed this evening. In 1971, East Pakistan defied the Pakistani government and declared independence, sparking the war that would lead to the creation of Bangladesh. Molla was accused of aiding and abetting the forces of the Pakistan government in their attempts to prevent the breakaway of the country’s eastern province.

A senior member of Jamaat-e-Islami, a strict Islamist political group, Molla and his compatriots opposed Bangladeshi independence. On the formation of the Bangladeshi state in 1971, the party was outlawed, only rejoining the political fray in the 1980s.

Pakistani troops, along with Jamaat-e-Islami and various other anti-independence militias, are accused of carrying out a genocide against the Bengali people of East Pakistan. The scale of the atrocities encouraged India to enter the war of independence in opposition to its erstwhile enemy. It took the ruling Awami League until 2009 to establish the Bangladeshi ICT, such was the concern at the potential revelations any high-profile trials might reveal.

Mass graves became a common sight in East Pakistan (Bangladesh) in 1971. Up to 3m innocent civilians were killed
Mass graves became a common sight in East Pakistan (Bangladesh) in 1971. Up to 3m innocent civilians were killed

However naturally brutal conflict is, the act of executing and raping innocent civilians is criminally unacceptable and someone must pay the price. It would have been easy for the Bangladesh government to allow a further stay of execution for Molla, knowing the reprisals that his Islamist followers are likely to unleash.

Fortunately, the majority of the population are on the side of the government, proven by the candlelit protests in favour of tonight’s execution. Indeed, history must be confronted if a nation in its infancy, which Bangladesh remains, is to create a unified national identity.

Nelson Mandela’s death has brought the theme of reconciliation to the fore in recent days. Such a noble sentiment is explicable in certain cases but it must be married alongside the need for justice.

It is hoped that the supporters of Jamaat-e-Islami recognise the need to punish their wartime leaders. If they can swallow this bitter pill then they will attain greater legitimacy as a political force.

Such an outcome, unfortunately, is not expected. The organisation’s website has already called for mobilisation against the ‘autocratic’ government to oppose the ‘heinous crime’ committed. Battlelines look set to be drawn on the home front once more.

The public executions of Pakistani collaborators after Bangladesh independence has not been forgotten by Jamaat-e-Islami
The public executions of Pakistani collaborators after Bangladesh independence has not been forgotten by Jamaat-e-Islami