Wild and Wealthy: the Past and Future of the Caspian Sea

I have been advertised that the chief trade of Persia is into Syria, and so transported into the Levant Sea [Mediterranean]. The few ships upon the Caspian Seas, the want of mart and port towns, the poverty of the people and the ice, maketh that trade not.

So commented Anthony Jenkinson, intrepid representative of the English Muscovy Company during his epic journey through Russia and Central Asia in 1558-1560.

In search of new trading partners and an overland route to the wealth of China, Jenkinson’s explorations were not only a remarkable feat of adventurism but they also allowed for some of the first English-language accounts of a region still oft-overlooked thanks to their inclusion in Richard Hakluyt’s The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries of the English Nation.

The land encompassing the Caspian Sea – a still controversial designation for this massive landlocked body of water – rarely makes the headlines, only momentarily garnering attention for a recent agreement hashed out Aktau between Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Iran.

The five heads of state celebrate the deal in Aktau

After decades of dispute, the five littoral states bordering the Caspian have agreed to share its resources and work together to prevent outside powers from setting up military bases on its shores. Rich in oil and gas, it is a prudent step to douse this particular geopolitical flame.

When Jenkinson – a native of the quiet Leicestershire town of Market Harborough – travelled the region in the mid-1500s, he encountered a wild land of nomads and bandits, whose conceptions of commerce differed widely from his own ‘sophisticated’ notion.

From the Caspian Sea unto the castle of Sellizure aforesaid, and all the countries about the said sea, the people live without town or habitation in the wild fields, removing from one place to another in great companies with their cattle, whereof they have great store, as camels, horses, and sheep both tame and wild.

Yet if the Caspian of the 16th century was beyond his comprehension, imagine what the merchant would think of today’s Baku, the oil-rich capital of Azerbaijan, with its sparkling modern facades and nouveau-riche adornments.

Baku’s elite status has been confirmed by its hosting of a grand prix on the Formula 1 calendar

Not that the oil wealth of the Sea was completely unknown to Jenkinson’s contemporaries. Thomas Bannister and Jeffrey Duckett (also English traders) commented that the area was:

a strange thing to behold, for there issueth out of the ground a marvelous quantity of oil, which serveth all the country to burn in their houses. This oil is black and is called nefte. There is also by the town of Baku, another kind of oil which is white [petroleum] and very precious.

Indeed the modern petroleum industry threatens to wreak environmental disaster on the Caspian, with oil run-off and chemical disposal poisoning its waters at an alarming rate. If the five signatories do not take action soon, then the Caspian threatens to follow the Aral Sea into ecological oblivion.

Oil wells near Baku: with great wealth comes environmental responsibility

Jenkinson thought that the Aral ran into the Caspian, yet today the former is barely recognisable as a water body, its desiccated plains more reminiscent of a desert.

What was, and remains, true about his observations, however, is the ‘wildness’ of the Caspian. Beyond the oil wealth there is impoverishment and turmoil. Iran sits on the Sea’s southern border, scheming to bend the region to its will. Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan remain mired in post-Soviet decay to the east, whilst to the north is the restive Russian province of Dagestan, long a source of discontent that Moscow has sought to quell.

This Astracan is the furthest hold that this Emperor of Russia hath conquered of the Tartars towards the Caspian Sea, which he keepeth very strong, sending thither every year provisions of men and victuals, and timber to build the castle.

Jenkinson could almost be writing about Vladimir Putin and his determination to ensure the loyalty of his southern lands (many Muslim-dominated), albeit substituting the castles for tanks and modern artillery.

A map based on Jenkinson’s descriptions: note the misshapen Caspian

Central Asia is imbued with huge economic and political potential, yet few seem to realise it. A massive disparity in wealth and opportunity exists between the elite and the citizenship, whose ambitions have been thwarted by dictatorial and repressive regimes.

Whether the ground-breaking achievement of this month will make a difference to the lives of ordinary citizens remains to be seen. Will the state-level sharing trickle down to the poor and needy? Without international attention, their governments may not see the immediate value in concession. A desire to protect the Caspian’s precious sturgeon population (the caviar conduit) may be a stronger incentive to clean-up the lake than the wants of those who rely on its waters for sustenance.

Successful fisherman in the Caspian Sea in 1949, before the oil boom

On his return across the Caspian from the fabled Silk Road town of Bukhara, Jenkinson and his men were buffeted by a storm during which they were:

driven far into the sea, and had much ado to keep our bark from sinking, the billow was so great: but at the last, having fair weather, we took the sun, and knowing how the land lay from us, we fell with the river Iaic, according to our desire, whereof the Tartars were very glad, fearing that we should have been driven to the coast of Persia, whose people were unto them great enemies.

With the agreement of Aktau, it should no longer matter which way the winds blow.

The Boot on the Other Foot: Moscow and the Crimean Tatars

Crimea’s Tatar minority is one group particularly wary of Russian incursion. With the threat of a full-scale Russian invasion hanging over the peninsula, individuals in the Crimea are confronting difficult choices about whether to support or oppose such an event, or whether to simply keep their head down and hope for the best.

Crimea's Tatars face an anxious wait
Crimea’s Tatars face an anxious wait

The Tatars may be fearful of Russian interference today, especially given their recent history of Stalinist-era eviction from their homeland and the suspicions regarding their Islamism. However, it is often forgotten that it was the Russians who were once deadly fearful of the Tatars.

In the 15th century, remnants of the Mongol horde that had descended upon Eastern Europe some three centuries earlier established a Crimean Khanate, encompassing parts of modern-day Russia and Moldova in addition to the Black Sea peninsula. Ultimately a vassal of the burgeoning Ottoman Empire, the Crimean Tatars made frequent incursions into Russian territory, much of which was only loosely controlled by the Grand Duke of Muscovy (later the Tsar).

These incursions reached an apogee during the 1570s during the Russo-Crimean Wars. In 1571, an army of 120,000 (mostly Tatars and some Turks) rampaged northwards, burning and pillaging en route. Having routed the Russian Army and sent the remaining military remnants and civilians on the retreat, the Crimeans put Moscow to the flame. Virtually the entire city was devastated and the Russians narrowly avoided complete capitulation to the Ottomans the following year.

The Crimean Tatars carried on the Mongol legacy of expert cavalry
The Crimean Tatars carried on the Mongol legacy of expert cavalry

Anthony Jenkinson, an employee of the English Muscovy Company who visited Ivan the Terrible in Moscow, detailed in 1572 the ‘woeful state of Russia’ brought about by the Tatar raids:

A valiant nation of Tatars, in the latter end of May last, invaded this realm, gave the prince an overthrow in the fields, caused him to retire, burnt and consumed all the country before them, and came to the city of Moscow, set fire to the same, not leaving one house standing, and few people are now escaped.

The number of those that were burnt, besides such as were carried away captives by the said Crimeans, is thought to be about three-hundred thousand. A just punishment of God for such a wicked nation. (Jenkinson, p.306)

Jenkinson, clearly not enamoured with the Russians, predicted further Tatar invasions. He would be proved right. Although never exerting such devastation on the Russian people as they had in 1571,the Tatars of the Crimean Khanate would prove a constant nuisance to the Tsars until their annexation by the Russian Empire in 1783. (Even then, many Tatars fought for the Ottoman Empire against the Russians during the Crimean War).

The boot by then, as it is now, was firmly on the other foot. Whether the Crimean Tatars would summon the spirit of their ancestors to defy a Russian invasion may be a nugatory question. It is clear, however, that they have welcomed their return to the Black Sea under Ukrainian authority and they are unlikely to be cowed without some form of resistance.

We may not have seen the last clash between Moscow and Crimea’s Tatars.


Jenkinson A, Early Voyages and Travels to Russia and Persia, by Anthony Jenkinson and other Englishmen (Hakluyt Society, 1886)