On the 24th January 1848, carpenter James W. Marshall discovered gold in the American River near Sutter’s Mill, sparking the California Gold Rush. Pioneers from across the USA set out for the West, intent on uncovering a fortune that few ultimately found. Whilst many of the pioneers may have been unsuccessful, their mass migration captured the popular imagination, precipitating the creation of California as a state of opportunity and good fortune.
The endeavours of the early California migrants are nicely illustrated in a series of maps produced by a military detachment escorting a group of pioneers between Fort Smith, Arkansas and Santa Fe, New Mexico in 1849. Forced to cross Native American territory, the 3,000 emigrants were provided with a military escort led by a Captain Marcy.
Map 1 shows the route from Fort Smith, now Arkansas’ second-largest city, to Old Fort Holmes, located at the mouth of the Little River near present-day Holdenville, Oklahoma. Native American territories are identified on the map, with observations made about the quality of land. This military escort was clearly equally interested in surveying the terrain for future settlement as it was in ensuring the safety of its party.
Map 2 shows the settler escort continuing to follow the route of the Canadian River to a series of ‘natural mounds’ beyond the Antelope Hills which, at an elevation of over 700m, served as a point of reference for the various tribes of the Plains Indians. Again it is interesting to note the annotations on the map, particularly the declaration of abundant gypsum deposits.
The third section of the route appears rather uneventful with no significant features noted between the Antelope Hills and the Llano Estacado (Staked Plain) in present-day Texas. This is perhaps not surprising given the open expanses of the Llano. This route was a popular one amongst the early California pioneers, however, despite the presence of the often-hostile Comanches in the region.
The final map shows the continuation of the journey from the Llano Estacado to Santa Fe, which had been founded by the Spanish in 1610. The total journey of the military escort is charted at 819 miles and there would still be plenty more distance to travel for the pioneers as they continued their drive west alone.
The observations shown on the above maps are similar to those made by Francis Parkman in his account, ‘The Oregon Trail’, based on his journeying of 1846. Travelling before the Gold Rush, Parkman nonetheless looked at the virgin land with an eye for potential development. Just three years later, the Oregon and Santa Fe trails, along with myriad other routes, were being used regularly by the California settlers.
For the pioneers to make such marathon journeys through territories still occupied by substantial Native American tribes, across hazardous and unforgiving terrain, without any guarantee of profit at their destination, testifies to the historical allure of gold. Despite the misfortune of many who braved the journey, their exodus from the east helped create the founding myth of California and remains one of the most captivating periods in the Age of Discovery.