Under the Kremlin’s Watchful Eye: can Ukraine follow Estonia’s break from Russia?


In September 1939, Estonia and the USSR signed a Mutual Assistance Pact based on:

Recognition of the independence of state and non-interference in internal affairs of either party; recognising that the peace treaty of February 2nd 1920 and the treaty of non-aggression and the peaceful settlement of conflicts (dated May 4th, 1932) continue to constitute firm basis of their mutual relations and obligations. (FO 371/23689)

The Pact would not ‘in any way infringe sovereign powers of the [the] contracting parties’.

By June 1940, Soviet troops had invaded Estonia. Using a clause in the Mutual Assistance Pact – which allowed for Soviet aerodromes and naval bases in Estonian territory – as a pretext for a military blockade of the independent state, Stalin easily made one of several successful territorial acquisitions at the beginning of WWII.

Although German forces ousted their Soviet foe from Estonia in 1941, embarking on their own three-year occupation, by the end of the war the Estonia Soviet Socialist Republic (ESSR) had been reestablished. It would remain in place until 1991.

The illegal incorporation of Estonia into the USSR was accompanied by an intensive programme of Russification
The illegal incorporation of Estonia into the USSR was accompanied by an intensive programme of Russification

Estonia had been independent during the inter-war years, boasting a population with Germanic, Nordic and Russian influences. Ukraine, meanwhile, having declared a short-lived People’s Republic in 1917, was by 1921 a state within the Soviet Union.

Having also been occupied by both Soviet and German troops during WWII, Ukraine was in a similarly-weak position to Estonia when it was re-incorporated into the Soviet sphere in 1944.

Ukraine was the scene of fierce fighting during WWII
Ukraine was the scene of fierce fighting during WWII

Whereas Estonia had cultural, linguistic and geographical ties with Baltic Europe and Scandinavia, Ukraine had for several centuries been subjected to strong Russian influence. This influence, as this year’s protests attest to, has been hard to shake off.

The overthrow of Viktor Yanukovych and the establishment of a pro-European interim government in Kiev has led to accusations from the Kremlin of an ‘armed mutiny’ backed by the West. Commentators fear a split between Ukraine’s pro-European and pro-Russian segments of the population that could lead to a fracturing of the state.

In February 1958, Estonian exiles in London celebrated the 40th anniversary of the founding of their state, which they refused to accept was a legitimate component of the Soviet Union. One point was made particularly clear:

The Republic of Estonia was invaded by the USSR in June 1940…To this day the Estonian people are kept in bondage by the Soviets and prevented from exercising their basic rights as an independent and sovereign nation. (FO 371/134617)

Since regaining independence in 1991, Estonia has turned abruptly away from its troubled Russian past, joining both the EU and NATO and making itself a popular business and tourist location for Westerners.

Ukraine, meanwhile, has retained a degree of the Russian ‘bondage’ that the Estonians bemoaned in 1958.

With an economy heavily dependent on Russian patronage and energy imports, a large demographic minority of ethnic Russians and extensive land borders with Russian territory, it will take more than the ousting of a Kremlin stooge for Ukraine’s sovereign integrity to finally be resurrected.

National Archive Sources

FO 371/23689 – ‘Soviet Relations with Baltic States’ (1939)

FO 371/134617 – ‘Non-Recognition by Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia of Annexation to Soviet Union’ (1958)

Other Sources

For more information of Estonia-Soviet Relations see: Davies N, Vanished Kingdoms: the History of Half-Forgotten Europe (2011)

Forgetting History: Greece, Golden Dawn and Fascism

Greece has been boosted by the news that it has posted its first current account surplus since records began in 1948, with a significant rise in tourism hinting at the possibilities of an economic recovery. Yet at the same time the country remains politically volatile. Golden Dawn, the neo-Nazi nationalists that hold 18 seats in parliament, remain a perennially-visible concern for the established political order. Indeed, judges are trying to seek the removal of the Golden Dawn MPs’ parliamentary immunity on the grounds that they run a criminal organisation.

Golden Dawn's imagery and rhetoric is inspired by violent fascism
Golden Dawn’s imagery and rhetoric is inspired by violent fascism

Whilst still a small party, the fact that Golden Dawn commands some 7% of the population’s support is a worrying statistic. This is especially so given Greece’s experience of fascism.

During WWII, the Italian fascists of Benito Mussolini saw Greece as a potential prize, having been deprived of territorial gains at the Paris Peace Conference after WWI. The ineptitude of the Italian attack in 1940 meant that the Hellenic Army easily defended Greek shores, yet the respite proved short-lived.

Reluctantly, Adolf Hitler provided the Italians with the support of the Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe to ensure an Axis conquest of the Greek territories. By April 1941 the occupation was complete and would last for over three years.

Nazi involvement precipitated a quick capitulation of Greek forces
Nazi involvement precipitated a quick capitulation of Greek forces

During the occupation, the true nature of fascism became evident to the Greek civilians who were starved, interrogated and brutalised. Whilst there were some notable collaborators with the invading force, the majority of the population detested the fascists and many joined the Greek Resistance, whose guerrilla warfare tactics would frustrate the Axis powers until they were finally evicted by the Allies.

It is a fact that people turn to political extremes in the face of economic desperation. Yet you would think that the proponents of Golden Dawn and their supporters would have a greater sense of history; most will have ancestors who survived the Axis occupation.

The Greek prosecutors are doing a great service by trying to reveal the illegitimacy of these so-called politicians. Along with a hint of economic recovery, it is hoped that Golden Dawn’s vile moment in the sun will come to an abrupt end.